《水浒传》与《三侠五义》中侠义精神的比较研究毕业论文_汉语言文学毕业论文

《水浒传》与《三侠五义》中侠义精神的比较研究毕业论文

2021-04-03更新

摘 要

– 2 –

ABSTRACT – 3 –

1前言 – 5 –

1.1 侠士形象溯源 – 5 –

1.2 侠义小说研究综述 – 5 –

2《水浒传》与《三侠五义》的侠义世界观 – 7 –

2.1 《水浒传》的侠义世界观 – 7 –

2.2 《三侠五义》的侠义世界观 – 8 –

3《水浒传》与《三侠五义》侠义精神的共性及其新变 – 10 –

3.1 快意恩仇 – 11 –

3.2 功利性 – 12 –

3.3 反叛性 – 13 –

结 论 – 15 –

参考文献 – 16 –

致 谢 – 17 –

中文摘要

在中国小说发展历史的漫漫长河中,侠的形象不断闪现,渐渐形成了以侠士作为主要描述对象的小说题材。从唐代的豪侠传奇,到宋明的市井豪侠传,从清代的侠义公案小说,到今日的武侠小说,“侠”作为一种独特的中国传统文化延绵至今。受各方面影响,侠义精神的内涵也由小到大,由简单到丰富,由娱乐性到审美性的变化着。侠义小说中的侠义精神不仅融入了创造者的价值观和审美观,也会从侧面反映时代大背景下,广大人民的精神需求。《水浒传》与《三侠五义》是中国侠义小说中的两部经典之作。《水浒传》不仅继承了唐宋豪侠的余韵,还加入了“忠”的内涵,为后世侠义小说的发展提供了宝贵的创造经验。而《三侠五义》作为古典长篇侠义公案小说的经典之作,它深受《水浒传》中侠义精神的影响,在忠义为重的侠义精神的基础上,还为侠安排了合理出路。本文在前人研究的基础上,将《水浒传》和《三侠五义》的侠义世界背景进行研究对比,主要通过两部作品中的侠士形象的分析总结,比较其中侠义精神的异同。

关键词:《水浒传》;《三侠五义》;侠义精神

ABSTRACT

In the long course of the development of Chinese novels, the image of chivalrous person appeared constantly, which gradually formed a novel theme by using chivalrous person as the main describing object.As a unique Chinese traditional culture, ‘xia’(chivalry) has been retaining until now, whether from the legendary segas in the tang dynasty to the biography of the civilian gallants in Song and Ming dynasty, or from the chivalrous and detective novels in the Qing dynasty to today’s martial arts novels.Influenced by various aspects, the connotation of chivalrous spirit has changed from small to large, simple to rich and recreation to aesthetic.The chivalry spirit in the chivalry novels not only demonstrates the value system and aesthetic taste of the author, but also reflects the spiritual needs of the people under the era background.Water Margin and The Three Heroes and Five Gallants are two classic works of Chinese chivalrous novels.Water margin not only inherits the lingering charm of gallant men in tang and song dynasties, but also adds the connotation of ‘zhong’ (loyalty) into that, which offering valuable creative experience for the development of the later age chivalrous novels.As a classic work among the chivalrous and detective novels, The Three Heroes and Five Gallants was deeply influenced by the chivalrous spirit in the Water Margin, and arranged a reasonable way out for chivalrous person.On the basis of previous studies, this paper will compare the background of the chivalrous world between Water Margin and The Three Heroes and Five Gallants.The similarities and differences of the chivalry spirit will be compared by analyzing the image of chivalrous person in these two works, and the causes of that will be explored.

Key words:Water MarginThe Three Heroes and Five Gallants;Chivalrous spirit

1前言

1.1 侠士形象溯源

侠的历史可以一直追溯到先秦,战国末期的韩非子在《五蠹》中道“儒以文乱法,侠以武犯禁”,最早提到了“侠”。习文者为儒,习武者为侠,在春秋战国这一特殊历史时期中,二者都是以不同本领依附国君贵族的门客,而在韩非子眼中,他们都是危害社会治安的扰乱者,是社会的蛀虫。虽然韩非子对于“侠”持否定的态度,但也为“侠”的形象内涵提供了雏形–“其带剑者,聚徒属,立节操。以显其名而犯五官之禁”。为侠者的特点是:1.佩戴剑器;2.聚集党徒;3.宣扬自己的名声;4.“以武犯禁”。

到了西汉,“侠”的内涵有了较大的改变,司马迁编写《史记》,将“游侠”和“刺客”作为除帝王诸侯外,其他各方面具有代表性的人物,编入列传。“侠”,成为了“一类人”,他们拥有自己的思想特征和行为规范,司马迁赞其“言必行,行必果”[1],虽然他们的行为不符合道德法律的规范,但是一定会他遵守履行他们所承诺的,果敢决断,不惜牺牲自己的生命,去救助别人摆脱困厄。显然,司马迁口中的侠已不再是韩非子描述的社会和谐的扰乱者,他们得到了认可,甚至成为了一种道德准则。

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