论《金阁寺》中美的建立和毁灭毕业论文_汉语言文学毕业论文

论《金阁寺》中美的建立和毁灭毕业论文

2021-04-02更新

摘 要

1

ABSTRACT 2

引言 1

一、 建立:绝对理想与美的初探 5

(一) 认识美 5

(二) 趋近美 6

(三) 接触美 8

二、抗衡:俗世生活与美的怀疑 10

(一) 将美拒绝 10

(二) 目睹丑恶 11

(三) 美恶转化 13

三、毁灭:恶的揭露与美的摧毁 15

(一) 美即虚无 15

(二) 恶的集成 17

(三) 恶的激发 18

结语 21

参考文献 22

致谢 23

中文摘要

三岛由纪夫悲惨的童年生活和错综复杂的人生际遇促使他形成了自己独特的文学观、美学观以及人生观。无论是三岛生前还是死后,他的文学作品一直是学界讨论的重点。三岛由纪夫生前并未直接表示自己曾经接受过存在主义思想,但在他生活的时代,存在主义风行一时,二战的失败冲击着日本的经济、政治、文化等方方面面,这恰恰成为存在主义在日本风靡的重要契机,日本因此成为存在主义在东方传播的重镇。本论试以存在主义视角探析三岛的主要代表作——《金阁寺》中的美学观。本文分作三个部分对此种美学观作出梳理和认识。三个部分通过选取典型人物的方式,依次分析这些关键人物如何影响主人公的美学观,揭示主人公从建立美的概念到亲手摧毁美的完整过程。另外,主人公沟口的心理状态与萨特所总结的孤独、焦虑、自欺的在世体验大多类同。

关键词:三岛由纪夫;存在主义;美学;《金阁寺》

ABSTRACT

Mishima Yukio’s miserable childhood and complicated life experience gave birth to his complex literature , aesthetics and life views. Whether during Mitshima’s life or after death, his literary works have always been the focus of academic discussion.

Yukio Mitshima did not explain that he had accepted existentialism directly during his life. However, in the era of Mitshima’s life, existentialism prevailed for a while and the failure of World War II impacting Japan’s economics, politics, and culture which led to the popularity of Existentialism in Japan, and then Japan became an important oriental city for existentialism spread. Therefore, we believe that Yukio Mitshima was influenced by existentialism inevitably, and existentialism integrated into his works subtly.

From the perspective of existentialism, this thesis tries to analyze the aesthetic views of Mitshima’s main representative work Kinkakuji. This article is divided into four parts to analyse these aesthetic views. The first part gives the overview of the spread and development of Existentialism in Japan, and intends to take Sartre’s Existentialism as the main theoretical basis when analyzing this article’s body part. Sartre believes that beauty and evil are interlinked. Mishima holds that beauty is equal to evil. Beauty and evil are two sides of the world, co-existing and acting on the same thing. This aesthetic view accords with Sartre’s theory of “the illusion of beauty”. In addition, the protagonist’s psychological states are similar to the world experience of loneliness, anxiety and self-deception which Sartre ever summarized. From the second part to the fourth part, through the way of selecting typical characters, I analyse how these key characters influence the protagonist’s aesthetic views successively , and reveal the whole process of the protagonist establishing the concept of beauty and then destroying it by himself.

Key words:Mishima Yukio;Existentialism; aesthetics;Kinkakuji

引言

作为二战后崛起的一位作家,三岛由纪夫享誉全球。在短暂的生命中,三岛为世人呈现了十几部特色鲜明、文采华丽、结构精巧、风格迥异的作品,如《金阁寺》、《假面的告白》、《鹿鸣馆》、《丰饶之海》等。在文学道路上,他将希腊古典主义与日本古典主义相结合,将唯美主义与浪漫主义融入自己的作品中,也衷情于描写生命与死亡之美。其中,《金阁寺》这部作品的发表使三岛名声大噪,作品中也集中体现了三岛的生命观和美学观。

《金阁寺》这部小说取材于1950年鹿苑寺僧徒林养贤焚毁金阁寺的真实事件,而作家在真实事件的基础上融入了自己独立的思想,同时借助文体的力量使这部作品超越了事件本身,从而赋予了它复杂而深刻的意义。小说的主题贯彻着三岛“两极对峙”的创作思想,一极为金阁的美丽与崇高,另一极是人世的污浊与丑恶。美与丑共处于同一个三维空间,二者相互对立、相互作用,由混合走向裂变。作者所要表达的是“美达于极致就要遭到毁灭”的残酷现实。

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