英语中汉语借词发展状况的研究--以1978-2018年《牛津英语词典》收录的汉语借词为例毕业论文_汉语言文学毕业论文

英语中汉语借词发展状况的研究–以1978-2018年《牛津英语词典》收录的汉语借词为例毕业论文

2021-04-04更新

摘 要

ABSTRACT 2

前言 4

    1. 研究对象 4
    2. 研究现状 5
    3. 语料来源 6
    4. 研究价值 6
  1. 汉语借词的形成原因 8

1 . 1 社会原因 9

1 . 2 语言原因 9

  1. 改革开放后新汉语借词现状分析 10

2 . 1 现状分析 1 0

    1. 纵向对比 12
    2. 横向对比 14
  1. 趋势预测 1 6
    1. 教育发展 16
    2. 经济发展 17

结论 18

参考文献 18

附录 A 19

附录 B 19

致谢 20

中文摘要

本文以英语中的汉语借词为研究对象,以 1978-2018 年间《牛津英语词典》收录的汉语借词为例进行分析。在与中国文化碰撞的过程中,英语中具有中国特色的新名词、新术语层出不穷,涵盖了社会生活、传统文化、经济社会、科学技术、政治方针等领域。汉语借词的形成原因来自于多方面,社会原因方面在于中国拥有悠久的文化历史,占有先天文化优势;由于文化背景不同,中西方文化差异显著,对同一事物的认知也会有所不同,因此彼此的文化交流少不了语言的借用;当今中国综合国力不断增强,国际地位不断提升,在全球化趋势下与世界的联系日益密切,文化影响力也随之增强,语言接触也越来越频繁。语言原因在于两种文化的差异会导致某一具有民族特色的概念在另一文化中找不到对等的词汇表达,形成词汇空缺,促使借词形成以准确表达意义;往往两种不同语系的语言差异会很大,而英语和汉语就属于这类情况,但我国推出的汉语拼音方案为英语国家的人们学习汉语提供了便利,汉语拼音拉丁化的汉字,建立起汉英间的语言相似性,有利于文化交流,利于汉语借词进入英语。就汉语借词的现状来说,yum cha

(饮茶)、tui na(推拿)、taikonaut(太空人)等汉语借词的使用频率于 1978 年左右都开始呈现增长趋势,在增长后往往趋于平缓稳定,也标志着汉语借词逐渐融入英语国家文化之中。同时,越来越多的孔子学院在世界各地建立起来,促进了汉语借词的发展。如今,汉语借词在数量、涉及领域和词义准确性等方面都有了显著的进步。这是中华文化深厚历史积淀的自身魅力,也是当今中国综合国力增强、国际地位提高、改革开放进程不断推进的必然结果。但汉语借词的语域分布主要在书面语,这说明这些词汇在英语国家的本土化速度还比较缓慢,对汉语借词融入英语形成一定阻力。总体上可以预见, 未来汉语借词发展的整体趋势还是十分乐观的。对汉语借词在英语文化中的发展现状研究具有很大价值,可以让人们了解中华文化在当今世界文化之林中的位置,增强民族文化自信,为汉文化的进一步发展助力。

关键词:汉语借词;当代美国英语语料库(COCA);英语;收录

ABSTRACT

This paper takes the Chinese language in English as the object of the study, and analyses the Chinese borrowed words which are included in the Oxford English Dictionary from 1978 to 2018 as an example. In the course of the collision with Chinese culture, the new term with Chinese characteristics in English is a new term, which covers the fields of social life, traditional culture, economic and social, science and technology, political policy and so on. The reason of the formation of the Chinese loan words comes from many aspects. The social reason is that China has a long history of culture and has the advantages of the innate culture. Because of the different cultural background, the cultural difference of the Chinese and the west is different, and the cognition of the same thing will be different. The cultural exchange of this kind is less than the borrowing of the language; today, the overall national strength of China is continuously enhanced, the international position is rising, the contact with the world is becoming more and more closely under the trend of globalization, and the cultural influence is also enhanced, and the language contact is becoming more and more frequent. The reason of the language is that the difference of the two cultures can lead to the expression of a certain concept of national character in another culture, so as to form a word vacancy, which can lead to the formation of a word to be expressed in an accurate way. English and Chinese belong to this kind of situation, but the Chinese pinyin scheme introduced in our country is provided by the people in the English country to study Chinese Convenient, Chinese pinyin Latin Chinese characters, the establishment of language similarities between Chinese and English, conducive to cultural exchanges, conducive to the entry of Chinese loanwords into English. As far as the present situation of Chinese loanwords is concerned, the frequency of Chinese loanwords, such as, yum cha (tea drinking), tui na (massage), taikonaut (astronauts, began to show an increasing trend around 1978, and tends to be flat and stable after the growth. It also marks the gradual integration of Chinese loanwords into the culture of English-speaking countries. At the same time, more and more Confucius Institutes have been established all over the world, which has promoted the development of Chinese loanwords. Nowadays, the number of loanwords in Chinese is in quantity. Significant progress has been made in the fields involved and the accuracy of the meaning of words. This is not only the charm of the profound historical accumulation of Chinese culture, but also the inevitable

result of the enhancement of China’s comprehensive national strength, the improvement of international status and the continuous promotion of the process of reform and opening up. However, the register distribution of Chinese loanwords is mainly in written language, which indicates that the localization of these words in English-speaking countries is still relatively slow, which forms some resistance to the integration of Chinese loanwords into English. On the whole, it can be predicted that the overall trend of the development of Chinese loanwords in the future is still very optimistic. It is of great value to study the present situation of the development of Chinese loanwords in English culture, which can make people understand that Chinese culture is in the process of being used. The position in the forest of world culture today enhances the confidence of national culture and contributes to the further development of Han culture.

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