《龙龛手镜·木部》同形字考察毕业论文_汉语言文学毕业论文

《龙龛手镜·木部》同形字考察毕业论文

2021-04-04更新

摘 要

同形字是形體一樣而代表不同的詞的字,這些不同的詞之間來源不同,沒有引申或派生關係。同形字在造字之初就已產生。從漢代起,學者就發現了同形字的現象。《說文》《廣韻》等傳世字書、韻書中蘊含了豐富的同形字材料。現當代學者在同形字的收集、整理和研究方面,取得了一定的成績,但也存在著諸多不足。由於同形字在語言文字研究、古籍整理、詞典編纂等方面有重要的作用,故同形字的梳理和研究是一份重要研究價值的工作。

《龍龕手鏡》在字書編纂史上扮演獨特的角色,除了收錄有大量的俗字外,它收錄有大量的同形字,是研究同形字的重要材料來源。本文選取《龍龕手鏡•木部》所收錄的 579 個字作爲考察對象,借助我們開發的《龍龕手鏡》專書語料庫,徵引傳世字書(如

《說文》《玉篇》《篆隸萬象名義》《廣韻》《集韻》《類篇》等)、佛典音義書(如慧琳《一切經音義》《可洪音義》《大唐衆經音義》等)考證木部同形字。按同形字産生途徑的不同,分爲換旁同形、變異同形兩類,依次考察《龍龕手鏡》所收字形與其音義的對應關係。本文考察的例子和相關結論,對於《龍龕手鏡》研究、近代同形字研究、古籍整理和辭書編纂等具有一定的參考價值。

關鍵詞:《龍龕手鏡》;同形字;俗訛字;字際關係

Investigation on the homograph of “Long kan shou jing• wooden character radicals”

ABSTRACT

Homoglyph is a word that has the same shape and represents different words. These different words have different sources and have no hidden or derivative relationship. Homoglyph came into being at the beginning of writing. Since the Han Dynasty, scholars have discovered the phenomenon of Homoglyph. Shuowen, Guangyun and other ancient Chinese character books and rhyme books contain rich Homoglyph materials. Modern and contemporary scholars have made some achievements in the collection, collation and research of Homoglyph, but there are still many deficiencies.

As Homoglyph plays an important role in the study of language and characters, the collation of ancient books and the compilation of dictionaries, the collation and research of Homoglyph is a work of great research value. “Longkanshoujing” plays a unique role in the history of calligraphy compilation. Apart from a large number of popular characters, it contains a large number of Homoglyph, which is an important source of materials for studying Homoglyph. In this paper, 579 characters collected in “Radical 75, Longkanshoujing” are selected as the research objects. With the help of the special book corpus of “Longkanshoujing” developed by us, handed down character books (such as Shuowen, Yupian, Zhuan Li Wan Xiang, Guangyun, Jiyun, Leipian, etc.), Buddhist scriptures (such as Hui Lin’s Yiqiejing yinyi, Ke Hong Yin Yi, Tang Zhong Jing Yin Yi, etc.), and unearthed document glyphs (such as Dunhuang common characters, carved stone characters, etc.) are cited to verify Mu Bu homographs. According to the different ways in which Homoglyph was produced, it can be divided into two types: paratactic orthography and variant orthography. The corresponding relationship between the received glyphs and their sound and meaning in Longkanshoujing is investigated in turn. The examples and relevant conclusions investigated in this paper are of certain reference value to the study of Longkanshoujing, the study of modern Homoglyph, the collation of ancient books and the compilation of dictionaries.

Key words: Longkanshoujing; Homoglyph; Common false words; Word relation

    1. 同形字的概念

1 緒論

一般情況下,同形字是指一個字代表兩個或兩個以上的字位元,記錄了兩個或兩個以上且音義無關的漢語詞。定義什麼是同形字,需要考慮兩個方面:一是明確同形字的範圍;二是明確同形字的來源。

從本質來看,同形字是同形異字。定義同形字,首先要學會區分“同字”“異字”。“‘同字’關係和‘異字’關係應該考慮到構形來源和功能兩個區分標準,構形相同並且應用中功能沒有發生分化可劃分為“同字”,一旦構形不一樣或構形一樣了,但功能在應用過程中發生了分化的具屬於“異字”。而漢字從構形或形體來源來看有三種不同的情況:“第一類,為語言中存在差異的詞造的字;第二類,為語言中同一個詞造的字;第三類,書寫變異。”第一種情況中,或許會出現為語言中不一樣的詞所造的字碰巧同形的現象,如“為記錄“錘或砸東西的墊板”義所造的“椹”,同時也是“桑葚”字的換旁異構字,是為語言中不同的詞所造的,屬於異字關係,只是形體偶然一樣。第二種情況中,為語言中同一個詞所造的字在應用中由於詞義引申或同音借用或許會發生記詞功用的擴大,因而便會產生一字多用現象,你如,古時為了記錄跳蚤這一意思造出了“蚤”這個字,後來因為和

“早”同一個字音,也被用來記錄早上這一含義,雖然都是“蚤”這個字,但是這裡的“蚤”屬於假借現象,它與同形字性質不一樣。這樣看來,由於一個詞義延伸出另一種意思,這種一個字代表兩個意思的現象也不屬於同形字,比如為了記錄被子這一意義造了“被”字,後面因為被子對於外物有覆蓋作用,衍生出覆蓋的意思,而當時由於擴大了記詞功用,沒有分化另一個字形,(後用“披”記錄覆蓋的意思);第三種情況,一些字起先字形不完全相同,但後面因為書寫發生了變異,慢慢地變成了同一個字形。

同形字研究综述

宋人鄭樵是最早開始注意到同形異字現象的人。他在《通志•六書略》解釋“假借”時提及雙音並義不是假借在漢字裡也出現過。鄭樵類聚了十五組例子,其中

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