论《罪与罚》中人的神性的发现毕业论文_汉语言文学毕业论文

论《罪与罚》中人的神性的发现毕业论文

2021-04-03更新

摘 要

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………….Ⅱ

前言………………………………………………………………………….…………………….………….1

1陀氏思想在作品中的体现……………………………………………………………………3

1.1 思想转变:从暴力革命走向宗教信仰………………………………………………………3

1.2 思想转变与作品的对应…………………………………………………………………………3

2 神性的承载者:阿廖娜………………………………………………………………………………5

2.1 被杀者阿廖娜……………………………………………………………………5

2.2 阿廖娜被杀的原因…………………………………………………………………………5

2.2.1 职业所致:放高利贷者…………………………………………………5

2.2.2 社会价值………………………….……………………………………6

2.2.3 拉斯柯尔尼科夫的超人理论……………………………………………6

2.3 人的神性….…………………………………………………………………………8

3 神性的破坏者:拉斯柯尔尼科夫……………………………………………………………………9

3.1 杀人者心理变化……………………………………………………………………9

3.2 深究精神崩溃的原因…………………………………………………………………10

3.2.1 理论的失败,心灵的重压………………………………………………………10

3.2.2 双重罪行,割裂神性………………………………………………………10

3.3 拉斯柯尔尼科夫的最终选择………………………………………………………………11

结论 ………………………………………………………………………………………13

参考文献 ………………………………………………………………………………………14

致谢 ……………………………………………………………………………………………15

中文摘要

《罪与罚》是陀思妥耶夫斯基的代表作品之一。小说讲述了一个穷大学生的杀人事件,通过展现主人公拉斯柯尔尼科夫犯罪前后的心理变化,折射出人性的复杂。在受到良心的谴责和痛苦的煎熬之后,他选择了自首认罪并接受惩罚。《罪与罚》创作于1866年,这一年俄国一方面陷入封建农奴制的矛盾,一方面受到西欧工业文明的冲击,人们陷入了焦虑与不安,怀疑一切定论、信仰问题,获得绝对的自由的同时也陷入了虚无,而《罪与罚》就是作者试图探求人本身所具有的特性,发现“人身上的人”。本文试图从犯罪者和受害者两个角度来探索人性的深层奥秘,人处于生物链的顶端,他的尊贵性究竟从何而来?犯罪者实施罪行后受到良心的谴责,以致精神恍惚、胡言乱语,惶惶不可终日,甚至无法面对亲人的关怀和问候而躲避他们。拉斯柯尔尼科夫为什么在杀人之后无法承受心灵的重负,这正是本文所要谈论的话题:不能杀人的原则源于人的神性。

关键词:人的神性;《罪与罚》;拉斯柯尔尼科夫;

ABSTRACT

Crime and Punishment is a representative novel by Dostoevsky. The novel tells about the murder of a poor college student and reflects the complexity of human nature by showing the psychological changes before and after the crime of the protagonist Raskolnikov. After being condemned by conscience and painful suffering, he chose to plead guilty and punish. Crime and Punishment was created in 1866. This year, Russia was plunged into a contradiction of the feudal serf system. On the one hand, it was affected by the industrial civilization of Western Europe. People were plagued by anxiety and anxiety, doubting all conclusions, beliefs, and obtaining absolute freedom. At the same time, it is also plunged into nothingness, and “crime and punishment” is the author’s attempt to search for the characteristics of the person himself and discover “the person in the person”. This article attempts to explore the profound mysteries of human nature from the perspective of the perpetrator and the victim. As a top of the biological chain, where does his dignity come from? The perpetrators have been condemned by their conscience after committing the crimes, resulting in sullen and nonsense. They cannot even end all day, and they cannot even avoid the care and greetings of their loved ones. Why did Raskolnikov fail to bear the heavy burden of the soul after his murder? This is the topic to be discussed in this article: The principle that no one can kill is derived from the divinity of man.

Key words:human nature;crime and punishment;Raskolnikov;

前 言

陀思妥耶夫斯基的作品在中国经历了很长时间才被人们所接纳和研究,因而中国对陀思妥耶夫斯基的研究还有很大的潜在空间。就目前已有的研究可分为以下几种:

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